The Internet Apocalypse That Wasn’t.
So much for the Internet apocalypse.
Several security experts and media reports predicted that Monday, July 9, would be remembered as the day millions lost their Internet connections — and possibly their livelihoods. Those concerns did not play out.
At 12:01 a.m. Eastern Time on Monday, the Federal Bureau of Investigation pulled the plug on servers that had been communicating with personal computers infected with a particularly thorny piece of malware. The malware, called DNSChanger, reconfigured the computers’ settings for the Domain Name System, or DNS, which functions as the switchboard for the Internet. The DNS translates user-friendly Web addresses like fbi.gov into numerical addresses that allow computers to speak to each other. Without DNS servers operated by Internet service providers, the Internet could not operate.
For four years, criminals based in Eastern Europe used the malware to tell computers to use the criminals’ own DNS servers and redirect Internet users to fraudulent advertising sites, in a scheme that federal officials say generated $14 million.
Last November, officials traced the scheme to six men in Estonia and one man in Russia; the former were arrested, and the latter remains at large. But by that point, officials said, DNSChanger had infected four million computers, including 500,000 in the United States. The malware was so stealthy that it was impossible for users to know if they had been infected.
As part of a federal court order, the F.B.I. arranged for a private company to swap the rogue DNS servers with legitimate servers to keep millions of infected users connected to the Internet. It also worked with Google, Facebook and major Internet service providers on a public awareness campaign to notify infected users that their systems had been compromised. As part of that push, a DNS Changer Working Group was formed to manage a Web site that let users check if their computers were infected and linked to sites that could help clean their systems.
But the federal court order keeping those legitimate servers running expired at midnight on Sunday, which left many security firms and the media forecasting a Y2K-like Internet blackout.
That never happened. By Monday afternoon, Internet service providers had yet to release the number of affected systems. But the final tally is likely to be nowhere near Internet Armageddon, partly because Internet service providers, like AT&T and Verizon, temporarily substituted their own DNS servers for those set up by the F.B.I. AT&T plans to keep its servers running through the end of the year. Verizon will keep its servers running through the end of July.
What Is “Internet Freedom”?
What Is “Internet Freedom”?
The United Nations Human Council has issued a resolution affirming that internet freedom is a basic human right and that people have the right to freedom of expression on the internet:
The same rights that people have offline must also be protected online, in particular freedom of expression, which is applicable regardless of frontiers and through any media of one’s choice.
The resolution is not binding and, as Human Rights Watch’s Executive Director Ken Roth, says in the New York Times, it will mostly be cited for “public shaming.” Even China, whose “Great Firewall” blocks out online content including Google and Twitter, has backed the resolution in a sign, notes Roth, that it “isn’t comfortable publicly owning up to the Internet censorship regime that it tries to maintain.”
Russian Wikipedia Goes Dark
Russia, whose human rights and censorship records leave something to be desired, has also signed the resolution. Today, Russian Wikipedia has gone dark to protest a law, the Internet Act, that would allow the government to blacklist certain sites, specifically those containing child pornography, promoting teenage suicide and containing information about drugs. Wikipedia contends that the law gives the government power to “subjectively” choose which sites to censor. For today, the Russian Wikipedia site has a black line across it and a message which says the law “could lead to the creation of extra-judicial censorship of the entire internet in Russia, including banning access to Wikipedia in the Russian language.”
Internet Freedom and Censorship Also an Issue in the West
But as debates arising around the UN’s resolution reveal, Western countries are no more off the hook, says the New York Times:
The ball, in some ways, is now in the court of the technology companies that produce the tools that countries use to monitor and circumscribe their citizens on the Internet. China’s firewall uses technology from Cisco, for instance. American law-enforcement agencies routinely seek information from Internet companies; Twitter is among a handful of companies that insists on informing users when their data is sought, as it did with supporters of WikiLeaks and the Occupy Wall Street movement.
Google, Twitter and other global now routinely public transparency reports to reveal how requests for takedowns they receive. Notably, the US made the most requests, as have companies including Microsoft, in the most recent report. Facebook does not publish such reports, an omission that the social media company may be called to revisit as the outrage for unexplained deletions of posts (from human rights abuses in Syria to photos of a child with Down Syndrome) accumulate.
Global internet companies must also figure out how to respond to the differing laws about referring to political figures (such as the Thai monarchy) in different countries.
What is “Freedom” on the Internet?
Whatever “internet freedom” is and means is equally a controversial topic within the US. As The Hill notes, politicians and advocacy groups from all parts of the political spectrum have turned “internet freedom” into a “rallying cry.”
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